Title 5 – May 2017 TOK Essay KQ 1 : What are the foundational causes for disagreements within a Discipline?


Experts within the same discipline may disagree , even with the same data, about the resulting interpretation , the nature of applied statistical tools and analysis, underlying assumptions , hypothesis and conjectures , implications and extent of the outcomes and results .


Even with only one ‘Truth’ and one ‘Reality’ , many perspectives of that reality may exist . These perspectives are shaped by multitude of factors including culture, history , environment and personal—experiences , beliefs , thoughts , motivation and incentives that change with time.The potency of disagreements arising out of putting forward claims and conflicting claims depend on the undercurrents set in motion by distinct perspectives. Depending on the strength and nature of claims and conflicting claims these contradictions are reconcilable while sometimes they are not.


The underlying reasons for conflicting claims are attributed to rigidly held moral values , beliefs , identities and interests crucial for survival like high stakes distributional claims on resources. The interplay of these reasons form the bedrock for creating disagreements .


When the claims and conflicting claims are based on unyielding fundamental moral, religious, and personal values , the perspectives that are formed in the process even by the experts , in the same discipline, are uncompromising and not easily reconcilable.